29 janvier 2021 | International, Aérospatial

Future Fighter Investment Is Keeping Eurocanards Competitive

Tony Osborne

Europe may be gearing up for the development of two next-generation combat aircraft, but its trio of so-called Eurocanards have managed to hold sway in the international fighter market.

As little as five years ago, the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter seemed set to rule the roost in Europe, and the production of the Eurofighter Typhoon and the Dassault Rafale was deliberately drip-fed as industry extended production in hopes of securing a place in future fighter contests.

Today, however, production of both types looks assured: Export sales and top-up orders from domestic nations will take production of both aircraft well into the late 2020s and their service lives out to 2060-70. Meanwhile, development of Saab's Gripen E continues apace, and the aircraft it was supposed to replace, the C/D model, now looks set to enjoy a career with the Swedish Air Force into the 2030s, paving the way for a new upgrade path into a future as a firm fixture on the international fighter market.

“There has been a confluence of military, political, financial and industrial considerations that has kept these aircraft in production,” says Douglas Barrie, senior fellow for military aerospace at the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies.

Because these platforms were originally designed for Cold War-era threats, the expectation was that if the Cold War had continued, the successors to these platforms would have already entered the inventory or at least been well into development.

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the resulting reduction in tensions instead saw the pace of fighter development slacken. Financial concerns put future fighter needs on the back burner, and largely incremental upgrades were delivered by industry to keep their skills ready for future programs.

“In recent years, however, the deterioration in the security environment and renewed concerns with Russia have given the European fighters and their American counterparts a second wind,” Barrie says.

The F-35 is another key factor. Some European countries view the U.S. fighter as a threat to their national industry and sovereignty, and the type is perceived as having strings attached to security and operational uses. Furthermore, the cost of operation has so far been high, and the weaponry options that come with European platforms are not available on U.S. platforms. Both the Eurofighter and the Gripen, however, are integrated with many different U.S. munitions. All three European fighters can now use the ramjet-powered MBDA Meteor beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile, and export customers can also access standoff weapons such as the Storm Shadow, Scalp and Taurus KEPD 350 air-launched cruise missiles, all largely free of strict U.S. regulation—a significant element for Middle East customers.

Yet even with their replacements now on the distant horizon, the future development road map for the three European fighters appears more certain than ever.

Both the French-German-Spanish Future Combat Air System (FCAS) and the UK-Italian-Swedish Tempest initiatives look set to benefit the platforms they will replace.

French plans call for the Rafale to remain in service until 2070, supplementing the New-Generation Fighter (NGF), which will be at the heart of the Future Combat Air System when it enters service around 2040 (AW&ST Nov. 25-Dec. 8, 2019, p. 46).

The F4 upgrade for the Rafale includes improvements to the aircraft's communications suite and delivers additional weaponry. The F5 upgrade, meanwhile, planned for the early 2030s, will enable the Rafale to make use of the FCAS' remote-carrier concept and introduce a virtual cognitive assistant to support the pilot in high-workload situations. Work on the artificial intelligence is already underway through the Man-Machine Teaming advanced study program launched by Thales and Dassault in March 2018.

Plans for F6 and F7 upgrades, likely to emerge in the 2040s, are envisioned to align with the upgrade path for the NGF.

One of the drivers for the Rafale's retention is France's aim to have a two-type fighter fleet: one to meet high-end threats and another lower-cost platform to take on less complex threats.

Currently, the Rafale takes that lead role, and the Dassault Mirage 2000 supplements it, but once the NGF enters service, the Rafale will augment that platform.

A wave of Rafale orders has helped to sustain that development activity, led first by Egypt and Qatar and then followed by India after the long-drawn-out agreements were finalized.

Greece joined the Rafale operators club in January, the first European customer outside France to do so, with an order for 18, including several second-hand aircraft from French Air Force stocks.

The Rafale is also in contention in Finland and Switzerland, and an export deal is said to be close in Indonesia. Top-up orders from France are in the offing, too: Twelve are on order to offset those aircraft being delivered to Greece, while another 30 Rafales are planned for delivery in 2027-30.

The four Eurofighter partner nations—Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK—managed to draw out production for domestic use over 17 years, keeping production warm for potential future orders. This was a strategy that finally paid off in 2016: Kuwait ordered 28 aircraft, and a year later Qatar ordered 24. The two orders boosted the business case for investment in an active, electronically scanned array (AESA) radar for the aircraft, and Germany's Quadriga order will bring new enhancements to the AESA sensor. The order for 38 Tranche 4 Eurofighters to replace its Tranche 1 fleet keeps the production lines and platform development moving and adds an improved AESA radar and updated electronic warfare systems to the type's optional extras list. Another top-up order should come later this year from Spain, whose Halcon requirement calls for the purchase of an additional 20 airframes.

The Eurofighter also will benefit from both the Tempest and FCAS development streams, but much of how this will pan out is still subject to agreement among the four nations.

Jointly, they have been studying proposals for the Eurofighter's Long-Term Evolution (LTE) described as a midlife update for the platform. Studies for the LTE, launched by the four-nation consortium at the Paris Air Show in 2019, aim to expand on the performance-enhancement packages already being rolled out across the fleet and build on the fighter's mission-system architecture, defensive-aids suite and human-machine interface. The LTE studies also will consider a wide-area display cockpit as well as the integration of new weapons and enhanced engine performance.

LTE will likely feature on the planned Tranche 5 Typhoons that Germany wants to introduce to replace its Panavia Tornado fleet. Airbus has suggested the first LTE aircraft could fly in 2027-28.

Other opportunities are in the offing, too. Like the Rafale, the Eurofighter is competing in Finland and Switzerland, and the potential exists for further orders from the Middle East. Saudi Arabia might use the platform to replace its Tornado fleet, which is due to exit service around 2030. Agreements signed by Riyadh in 2018 for another 48 aircraft are yet to be exercised.

Output from the LTE study has been submitted to Eurofighter customers for review and consideration, Eurofighter's head of strategic marketing, Raffael Klaschka, tells Aviation Week.

“We are actively supporting that process, and we will continue to do so until it concludes. . . . A positive outcome will allow us to progress toward the next phase of the program and bring Typhoon LTE aircraft into service through the latter half of the decade,” Klaschka says. “We are confident that the LTE study report contains cost-effective long-term solutions that will maintain Typhoon's position as a world-leading multirole fighter aircraft, providing the foundation for the continued development of the weapon system well into the 2060s.”

In support of the FCAS introduction, Airbus is proposing a combat cloud network for both the Eurofighter and Rafale that would be ready for operations in 2030 and might even pave the way for use of remote carriers—unmanned aircraft that are envisaged to accompany the FCAS into hostile airspace. The UK also is discussing the use of its Lightweight Affordable Novel Combat Aircraft alongside the Typhoon as an additive capability before the Tempest enters service. Additionally, the UK is advancing plans for a more capable AESA radar with an electronic-attack capability (AW&ST Sept. 14-27, 2020, p. 28).

Development of Saab's Gripen E is continuing rapidly; efforts are now taking place across two continents with the arrival of Brazil's first aircraft in-country in late 2020.

Saab views the Gripen E as a new-generation fighter aircraft. Because of the differences between the E and C/D models, the company argues there are now four Eurocanards. Although production of the Gripen C/D is currently on ice, Saab has said it could quickly restart production should new orders for the older version emerge.

“Gripen E is a completely new aircraft,” says Mikael Franzen, vice president and head of marketing and sales at Saab's aeronautics business. “Of course, we use this very optimized configuration that we have on Gripen, but we have redesigned the complete airframe internally. . . . Pretty much every system in there has been redesigned.”

The Gripen E is a stockier, heavier machine than its predecessor. Broader wing roots allow it to carry 40% more fuel, and wider air intakes feed the more powerful General Electric F414-GE-39E turbofan engine. Two additional belly-mounted pylons expand weapon load capacity, while faceted wingtip pods feature an enhanced electronic-warfare capability. Its empty weight is up by 1,200 kg (2,650 lb.) to 8,000 kg, and all-up weight is increased by 2,500 kg to 16,500 kg, yet the jet has been designed to remain within the strict parameters that allow the Swedish Air Force to use the newer version from its network of austere bases and road runways. Internally, Saab has focused on the development of advanced sensor and electronic-warfare capability, while a federated architecture separates critical flight control systems from the tactical systems.

Saab says the federated approach will make the Gripen E's avionics and mission systems more easily and quickly upgradable; tactical upgrades could be written, tested and installed in weeks rather than months or even years.

“The technology is working, and we are talking weeks rather than months or years for upgrades,” Franzen says.

The challenge will be for customers to adapt to this new rapid pace of change. Air forces will need to develop ways to approve the new upgrades and then train their pilots to be able to fight with the modified aircraft, Franzen adds.

The Gripen E's new sensors should allow it to surpass the capability of the Gripen C/D when it reaches the front line in 2023. Among the systems onboard is what Saab refers to as human-machine collaboration: If the pilot is focused on an air-to-ground task, for instance, the aircraft systems will continue to monitor the aerial picture and warn the pilot if a potential threat emerges ahead.

Sweden would like the aircraft to be able to carry a standoff weapon by the end of the decade, and Brazil sees its Gripen Es carrying a cruise missile, the domestically developed MICLA-BR, in the coming years.

Meanwhile, the Swedish government's decision to keep 40 Gripen C/D aircraft in service to supplement the Gripen E fleet in response to the enhanced threat posed by a resurgent Russia has prompted Stockholm to consider how to keep the older, smaller Gripen model relevant into the 2030s, which could bolster its chances on the international market once again, too. The last Gripen C/D sale was to Thailand 13 years ago, but the fighter has struggled to find a sale since; at least one country has cited a lack of AESA on Gripen C/D as a reason for its rejection. Saab subsequently self-developed and flew an X-band AESA in the Gripen last year, and that could form part of the platform's development road map, particularly for the retained Swedish fleet.

Franzen says the study work will initially focus on removing obsolescence from the aircraft before looking at capability areas. “We will, of course, try to get all of the ground support system [and] planning stations into one track to support both aircraft,” he says.

The Gripen E orderbook stands at 96 aircraft: 60 for Sweden and 36 for Brazil. But Brazil has ambitions to double or triple that number. Like its European rivals, the Gripen is competing hard for Finnish requirements.

Saab is developing a road map for the Gripen E, likely to build off Sweden's partnership with the UK and Italy on the Tempest technology work.

Both British and Italian industry have cited Sweden's experience with the rapid development of the Gripen E as a key ingredient to achieving success with the Tempest.

Ironically, after years of ferocious competition, Europe's fourth-generation fighters will be intrinsically linked together and will end up sharing technologies developed through the political and industrial links established to help replace them.

https://aviationweek.com/defense-space/aircraft-propulsion/future-fighter-investment-keeping-eurocanards-competitive

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  • Contract Awards by US Department of Defense - December 21, 2018

    24 décembre 2018 | International, Aérospatial, Naval, Terrestre, C4ISR, Sécurité

    Contract Awards by US Department of Defense - December 21, 2018

    ARMY Lockheed Martin Corp., Grand Prairie, Texas, was awarded a $3,378,834,083 fixed-price-incentive foreign military sales (Kuwait and Saudi Arabia) contract to produce Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target Advanced Capability-3 missiles with associated ground support equipment and initial spares. One bid was solicited with one bid received. Work will be performed in Huntsville, Alabama; Camden, Arkansas; Ocala, Florida; Chelmsford, Massachusetts; Grand Prairie, Texas; and Lukin, Texas, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 31, 2024. Fiscal 2019 other procurement Army funds in the amount of $1,808,140,141 were obligated at the time of the award. U.S. Army Contracting Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, is the contracting activity (W31P4Q-19-C-0011). Armed Forces Services Corp., Arlington, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0042); Booze Allen Hamilton Inc., McLean, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0043); Canvas Inc.,* Huntsville, Alabama (W15QKN-19-D-0044); CTRMG-GAPSI JV II LLC,* Fairfax, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0045); Dynamic Systems Technology Inc.,* Fairfax, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0046); GAP Solutions Inc., Herndon, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0047); Goldbelt Glacier Health Services LLC, Alexandria, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0048); HR Services Solutions LLC,* Manassas, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0049); Hyperion Biotechnology Inc.,* San Antonio, Texas (W15QKN-19-D-0050); 360 Patriot Enterprises LLC,* Alexandria, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0051); Quality Innovation Inc.,* Leesburg, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0052); Strategy Consulting Team LLC,* Fairfax, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0053); Serco Inc., Reston, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0054); Strategic Resources Inc., McLean, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0055); Three Wire Systems LLC, Falls Church, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0056); Zeiders Enterprises Inc., Woodbridge, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0057); and Science Applications International Corp., McLean, Virginia (W15QKN-19-D-0058), will compete for each order of the $2,457,541,083 hybrid (cost, cost-plus-fixed-fee, firm-fixed-price, firm-fixed-price-level-of-effort, and time-and-materials) contract to provide support for enterprise level human resource services for Department of Defense programs and systems. Bids were solicited via the internet with 32 received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 31, 2028. U.S. Army Contracting Command, New Jersey, is the contracting activity. Leading Technology Composites Inc.,* Wichita, Kansas (W91CRB-19-D-0009); Engense Inc.,* Camarillo, California (W91CRB-19-D-0010); and Florida Armor LLC,* Miami Lakes, Florida (W91CRB-19-D-0011), will compete for each order of the $268,864,369 hybrid (cost-plus-fixed-fee and firm-fixed-price) contract for Enhanced Side Ballistic Insert hard armor plates. Bids were solicited via the internet with three received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 20, 2022. U.S. Army Contracting Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is the contracting activity. AECOM Technical Services, Los Angeles, California (W912DR-19-D-0001); APTIM Federal Services LLC, Alexandria, Virginia (W912DR-19-D-0002); Bay West LLC,* St. Paul, Minnesota (W912DR-19-D-0003); Cape Environmental Management Inc.,* Norcross, Georgia (W912DR-19-D-0004); EA Engineering, Science, and Technology,* Hunt Valley, Maryland (W912DR-19-D-0005); HydroGeoLogic Inc., Reston, Virginia (W912DR-19-D-0006); Kemron Environmental Services Inc.,* Atlanta, Georgia (W912DR-19-D-0007); Leidos-CDM Solutions LLC, Denver, Colorado (W912DR-19-D-0008); Seres-Arcadis JV LLC,* Mount Pleasant, South Carolina (W912DR-19-D-0009); and Weston Solutions Inc., West Chester, Pennsylvania (W912DR-19-D-0010), will compete for each order of the $230,000,000 hybrid (cost-plus-fixed-fee and firm-fixed-price) contract for environmental services. Bids were solicited via the internet with 25 received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 20, 2023. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Baltimore, Maryland, is the contracting activity. Vectrus Systems Corp., Colorado Springs, Colorado, was awarded a $127,447,882 modification (P00172) to contract W52P1J-10-C-0062 for Kuwait base operations and security support services. Work will be performed in Camp Arifjan, Kuwait, with an estimated completion date of March 28, 2019. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance Army funds in the amount of $127,447,882 were obligated at the time of the award. U.S. Army Contracting Command in Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, is the contracting activity. International Business Machines, Bethesda, Maryland, was awarded a $92,148,924 modification (P00044) to contract W52P1J-17-C-0008 for services and solutions necessary to support and maintain the Army's General Fund Enterprise Business System. Work will be performed in Bethesda, Maryland, with an estimated completion date of Jan. 15, 2020. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance Army funds in the amount of $15,159,296 were obligated at the time of the award. U.S. Army Contracting Command in Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, is the contracting activity. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control, Grand Prairie, Texas, was awarded a $92,000,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract to purchase Launcher Integration Network Kit boxes, and associated software development activities. One bid was solicited with one bid received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 31, 2023. U.S. Army Contracting Command in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, is the contracting activity (W31P4Q-19-D-0016). Parsons-Versar JV, Arlington, Virginia, was awarded a $75,000,000 firm-fixed-price contract for general architect/engineer construction phase support services. One bid was solicited with two bids received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 20, 2023. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Louisville, Kentucky is the contracting activity (W912QR-19-D-0008). URS Federal Services Inc., Germantown, Maryland, was awarded a $60,350,545 modification (0002 38) to contract W52P1J-12-G-0028 for logistic support services for Army Preposition Stock-2. Work will be performed in Mannheim, Germany; and Dulmen, Germany, with an estimated completion date of Nov. 20, 2021. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance Army funds in the amount of $9,375,000 were obligated at the time of the award. U.S. Army Contacting Command in Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, is the contracting activity. AM General LLC, South Bend, Indiana, was awarded a $20,110,570 modification (P00001) to contract W56HZV-18-C-0177 for recapitalization of High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles for the Army National Guard. Work will be performed in South Bend, Indiana, with an estimated completion date of Sept. 30, 2019. Fiscal 2017 other procurement Army funds in the amount of $20,110,507 were obligated at the time of the award. U.S. Army Contracting Command, Warren, Michigan, is the contracting activity. DCT Inc.,* McAlester, Oklahoma, was awarded a $17,707,507 firm-fixed-price contract for full food service operations to be performed at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin. Bids were solicited via the internet with four received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 31, 2023. U.S. Army Mission and Installation Contracting Command, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, is the contracting activity (W9124J-19-D-0005). DynCorp International LLC, Fort Worth, Texas, was awarded a $12,431,031 modification (P00202) to contract W58RGZ-13-C-0040 for aviation field maintenance services. Work will be performed in Afghanistan, Egypt, Kosovo, and Germany, with an estimated completion date of June 30, 2019. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance Army; and aircraft procurement Army funds in the amount of $12,431,031 were obligated at the time of the award. U.S. Army Contracting Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, is the contracting activity. FLIR Systems Inc., Wilsonville, Oregon, was awarded a $10,442,932 modification (P00016) to contract W9113M-15-D-0001 for guaranteed repair and refurbishment of forward looking infrared radar. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Feb. 28, 2019. U.S. Army Contracting Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, is the contracting activity. DynCorp International LLC, Fort Worth, Texas, was awarded a $9,367,994 modification (P00280) to contract W58RGZ-13-C-0042 for aviation field maintenance services. 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CORRECTION: The contract announced on Dec. 20, 2018, to Raytheon Co., Andover, Massachusetts, for the Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target missile system, had the incorrect award amount and obligated amount. The contract was awarded a $692,997,550 and $515,192,122 were obligated at the time of the award. All other information in the announcement is correct. AIR FORCE Northrop Grumman Systems Corp., Rolling Meadows, Illinois, has been awarded a $1,310,000,000 indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity, firm‐fixed-price, cost-reimbursable contract for sustainment, modernization, production, and development of the LITENING advanced targeting pod. Work will be performed in Rolling Meadows, Illinois, and is expected to be completed Dec. 31, 2023. This contract is the result of a sole-source acquisition. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia is the contracting activity (FA8540‐19‐D‐0001). Lockheed Martin Services LLC, Colorado Springs, Colorado, has been awarded a $462,000,000 indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract for Global Positioning Systems Control-Segment Sustainment II. The contract provides depot-level software maintenance; organizational-level hardware and software maintenance; support to and integration of GPS Acquisition Category III programs onto the operational control system platform; systems engineering; Technical Order Management Agency support; maintenance and sustainment of the consolidated test environment; and non-recurring engineering and studies, as required. Work will be performed in Colorado Springs, Colorado, is expected to be completed by Dec. 31, 2025. This award is the result of a sole-source acquisition and one offer was received. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance funds in the amount of $41,524,038 are being obligated at the time of award. Space and Missile Systems Center, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado, is the contracting activity (FA8823‐19‐D‐0001). General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., Poway, California, has been awarded a $291,391,727 cost-plus-fixed-fee and firm-fixed-price contract for MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aerial systems support and services. This contract provides for program management, logistics support, configuration management, technical manual and software maintenance, contractor field service representative support, inventory control point management, flight operations support, depot repair, and depot field maintenance. Work will be performed in Poway, California, and is expected to be completed by Dec. 31, 2019. This award is the result of a sole-source acquisition. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance funds in the amount of $51,481,522 are being obligated at the time of award. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, is the contracting activity (FA8528-19-C-0001). Raytheon Corp., McKinney, Texas, has been awarded a $59,211,905 cost-plus fixed-fee and firm-fixed- price contract for Reaper MQ-9 sensors contractor logistics support. This contract provides for program management, contractor-filed service-representative support, depot repair, depot maintenance, sustaining engineering support, supply and logistics support, configuration management, tech data maintenance, software maintenance, inventory control point, and warehouse support for the MQ-9 sensors. Work will be performed in McKinney, Texas; and Jacksonville, Florida, and is expected to be completed by Dec. 31, 2019. This award is the result of a sole-source acquisition. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance funds are being obligated in the amount of $37,779,873 at the time of award. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, is the contracting activity (FA8528-19-C-0002). 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The work is expected to be completed by June 20, 2021. Fiscal 2019 and 2020 consolidated sustainment activity group engineering funds will be obligated on any individual task orders issued during the option one performance period. Total cumulative face value of the contract is $24,778,204. Air Force Sustainment Center, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, is the contracting activity. Raytheon Missile Systems, Tucson, Arizona, has been awarded a $9,573,118 firm-fixed-price modification (P00008) to contract FA8675-18-C-0003 for the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile program. This modification provides for a life of type procurement of known obsolete components in support of production and sustainment through the program of record and procurement of three guidance section refill stations in support of sustainment efforts. Work will be performed in Tucson, Arizona, and is expected to be completed by Dec. 31, 2019. This contract involves Foreign Military Sales (FMS) to Australia, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Morocco, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Spain, and U.K. Air Force and Navy fiscal 2017 procurement funds in the amount of $6,367,933 and FMS funds in the amount of $3,205,185 are being obligated at the time of award. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, is the contracting activity. NAVY Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine, is being awarded a $910,723,811 fixed-price incentive firm target modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-18-C-2305) to exercise the fiscal 2019 option for construction of a DDG 51 class ship (DDG 132). This modification also includes options for engineering change proposals, design budgeting requirements, and post-delivery availabilities on the fiscal 2019 option ship which, if exercised, would bring the cumulative value of the fiscal 2019 option ship to $921,990,345. Work will be performed in Bath, Maine (65 percent); Cincinnati, Ohio (5 percent); Atlanta, Georgia (3 percent); York, Pennsylvania (2 percent); Coatesville, Pennsylvania (2 percent); Falls Church, Virginia (2 percent); South Portland, Maine (1 percent); Walpole, Massachusetts (1 percent); Erie, Pennsylvania (1 percent); Charlottesville, Virginia (1 percent); and other locations below 1 percent (collectively totaling 17 percent), and is expected to be completed by May 2026. Fiscal 2019 shipbuilding and conversion (Navy) funding in the amount of $900,723,811 will be obligated at time of award and will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, District of Columbia, is the contracting activity. Lockheed Martin Corp., Rotary and Mission Systems, Liverpool, New York, is being awarded a $184,114,000 firm-fixed-price modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-16-C-5363) to exercise options for full rate production of Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (SEWIP) Block 2 subsystems (AN/SLQ-32(V)6). SEWIP is an evolutionary acquisition and incremental development program to upgrade the existing AN/SLQ-32(V) electronic warfare system. SEWIP Block 2 will expand upon the receiver/antenna group necessary to keep capabilities current with the pace of the threat and to yield improved system integration. Work will be performed in Liverpool, New York (23 percent); Lansdale, Pennsylvania (23 percent); Andover, Massachusetts (21 percent); Frankfort, New York (9 percent); Hamilton, New Jersey (7 percent); Hauppauge, New York (7 percent); Brockton, Massachusetts (3 percent); West Yorkshire, U.K. (2 percent); Minneapolis, Minnesota (2 percent); Huntsville, Alabama (2 percent); Lancaster, Pennsylvania (1 percent), and is expected to be completed by June 2021. Fiscal 2019 shipbuilding and conversion (Navy); and fiscal 2019 other procurement (Navy) funding in the amount of $184,114,000 will be obligated at time of award and will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, District of Columbia, is the contracting activity. The Boeing Co., St. Louis, Missouri, is being awarded a $76,581,676 not-to-exceed firm-fixed-price contract for the design, fabrication, installation, test and delivery of two F/A-18E Tactical Operational Flight trainers and two F/A-18E low cost trainers for the government of Kuwait under the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Work will be performed in St. Louis, Missouri (50 percent); New Orleans, Louisiana (30 percent); and Kuwait City, Kuwait (20 percent), and is expected to be completed in February 2022. FMS funds in the amount of $20,490,233 will be obligated at time of award, none of which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This contract was not competitively procured pursuant to Federal Acquisition Regulation 6.302-1. The Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Orlando, Florida, is the contracting activity (N6134019C0005). Raytheon Co., Tewksbury, Massachusetts, is being awarded a $72,117,547 modification to previously-awarded contract N00024-17-C-5145 to exercise options for DDG 1000 ship class integrated logistics support and engineering services. The DDG 1000 ship class is a multi-mission surface combatant designed to fulfill volume firepower and precision strike requirements. DDG 1000 combat systems provide offensive, distributed and precision firepower and long ranges in support of forces ashore, while incorporating signature reduction, active and passive self-defense system and enhanced survivability features. Work will be performed in Portsmouth, Rhode Island (40 percent); San Diego, California (28 percent); Tewksbury, Massachusetts (24 percent); Marlboro, Massachusetts (2 percent); Ft. Wayne, Indiana (2 percent); Bath, Maine (2 percent); St. Petersburg, Florida (1 percent); and Nashua, New Hampshire (1 percent), and is expected to be completed by September 2019. Fiscal 2019 shipbuilding and conversion (Navy); fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance (Navy); and fiscal 2019 research, development, test and evaluation (Navy) funding in the amount of $81,555,802 will be obligated at time of award, and $8,816,581 will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, District of Columbia, is the contracting activity. Pacific Architects and Engineers Applied Technologies, Fort Worth, Texas, is being awarded a $47,889,307 cost-plus-fixed-fee, firm-fixed-price, cost reimbursable contract for the development, test, and installation of the SureTrak surveillance system in support of the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division's SureTrak program office (AIR-5.2). The SureTrak system is a state-of-the-art, fully integrated, multi-sensor, data acquisition and display system used to perform airspace surveillance, waterway clearance, shoreline surveillance, and environmental monitoring functions at several Navy, Air Force and National Aeronautics and Space Administration facilities around the nation, as well as foreign governments. Work will be performed in various locations inside the continental U.S. (CONUS), including Patuxent River, Maryland; Wallops, Virginia; Dahlgren, Virginia; Vandenberg Air Force Base , California; Patrick Air Force Base, California; and Point Mugu, California. Work will also be performed outside CONUS at various locations, including Nigeria, Africa; SaoTome-Prinipe, Africa; Djibouti, Africa; Kenya, Africa; Tunisia, Africa; Congo, Africa; Togo, Africa; and Benin, Africa. Work is expected to be completed in December 2023. No funds are being awarded at time of award, funds will be obligated on individual orders as they are issued. This contract was competitively procured via a request for proposals; one offer was received. The Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity (N00421-19-D-0023). BAE Systems, Information and Electronic Systems Integration Inc., Greenlawn, New York, is awarded $38,141,300 for firm-fixed-price delivery order N0001919F0030 against a previously awarded indefinite-delivery/indefinite quantity contract (N00019-17-D-0003). This delivery order provides for the procurement of 14 AN/APX-117A(V) Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) transponders for the government of Bahrain; 969 AN/APX-123A(V) IFF transponders to include 777 for the Navy, 101 for the Army, two for the Coast Guard, 13 for the government of the U.K., nine for the government of Japan, 12 for the government of Norway, 35 for the government of Saudi Arabia, four for the government of Australia and 16 for the government of the United Arab Emirates; 100 mode 4/5 remote control units for the Navy; 62 IFF mounting trays to include 30 for the Navy, 8 for government of the U.K., 12 for the government of Norway, and 12 for the government of Bahrain; seven mode 4/5 Shop Replaceable Assemblies (SRA) with crypto for the Army, 136 signal processors for the Army; 210 Mode 5 change kits to include 100 for the Navy and 110 for the Army; 100 integrations of Mode 5 change kits for the Navy, 40 receiver/transmitters for the Army, 44 SRA power supplies for the. Army; 211 conversion kits to include 201 for the Army and 10 for the government of Australia; one AN/APX-118A(V) IFF transponder repair for the government of South Korea and four AN/APX-123A(V) IFF transponder repairs for the Navy. Work will be performed in Greenlawn, New York (78 percent); and Austin, Texas (22 percent), and is expected to be completed in March 2021. Fiscal 2018 Special Defense Acquisition Fund; working capital (Defense); fiscal 2019 aircraft procurement (Army); fiscal 2017, 2018 and 2019 aircraft procurement (Navy); fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance (Navy); fiscal 2019 other procurement (Navy); fiscal 2019 research, development, test and evaluation (Navy); fiscal 2018 and 2019 shipbuilding and conversion (Navy); and foreign military sales funds in the amount of $38,141,300 will be obligated at time of award, $118,601 of which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This order combines purchases for the Department of Defense ($26,170,660; 69 percent); Army ($4,799,989; 13 percent); Navy ($3,940,577; 10 percent); the government of Saudi Arabia ($1,166,65; 3 percent); the government of the United Arab Emirates ($533,104; 1 percent); the government of the U.K. ($439,443; 1 percent); the government of Norway ($409,272; 1 percent); the government of Japan ($299,871; 1 percent); the government of Australia ($203,056; 1 percent); the government of Bahrain ($174,966; 0.46 percent), and the government of South Korea ($4,197; 0.01 percent). The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity. Raytheon Co., Tuscon, Arizona, is being awarded a $37,902,562 cost-plus-fixed-fee modification to previously-awarded contract N00024-16-C-5433 to exercise options in support of Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) design agent, in-service support and technical engineering support services. This contract is to procure ESSM technical engineering support services, design agent and in-service support for calendar years 2016-2020. These requirements support ESSM missile production. The ESSM program is an international cooperative effort to design, develop, test and procure ESSM missiles. The ESSM provides enhanced ship defense. Work will be performed in Tucson, Arizona, (91 percent); Hengelo OV, Netherlands (2 percent); Raufoss, Norway (2 percent); Ottobrunn, Germany (1 percent); Richmond, Australia (1 percent); and various places below one percent (3 percent), and is expected to be completed by December 2019. Fiscal 2019 other country; fiscal 2018 weapons procurement (Navy); fiscal 2019 research, development, test and evaluation (Navy); Foreign Military Sales; and fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance funding in the amount of $16,663,004 will be obligated at time of award, and funds in the amount of $208,225 will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This is a sole-source contract pursuant to an international agreement between the U.S. and nine other countries. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, District of Columbia, is the contracting activity. General Dynamics Electric Boat Corp., Groton, Connecticut, is being awarded a $37,347,581 cost-plus-fixed-fee modification to previously-awarded contract N00024-12-C-2115 to exercise options to procure on-board repair parts for Virginia-class submarines PCU Massachusetts (SSN 798) and PCU Idaho (SSN 799). This option exercise is for Block IV Virginia-class submarines, PCU Massachusetts (SSN 798), and PCU Idaho (SSN 799) mechanical and electronic repair parts that will be stored on the ship while at sea. Work will be performed in Groton, Connecticut, and is expected to be completed by February 2022 for PCU Massachusetts, and August 2022 for PCU Idaho. Fiscal 2017 shipbuilding and conversion (Navy) funding in the amount of $9,498,000 will be obligated at time of award and will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, District of Columbia, is the contracting activity. Lockheed Martin Corp., Marietta, Georgia, is being awarded a $31,674,573 indefinite-delivery/ indefinite-quantity contract for sustainment engineering and logistics services in support of the C/KC-130J for the Marine Corps, Marine Corps Reserves, Coast Guard and the government of Kuwait. Work will be performed in Marietta, Georgia (66.5 percent); Palmdale, California (18 percent); Abdullah Al-Mubarak Air Base, Kuwait (2.5 percent); Iwakuni, Japan (2.5 percent); Miramar, California (2.5 percent); Cherry Point, North Carolina (2.5 percent); Elizabeth City, North Carolina (2.5 percent); Fort Worth, Texas (2.5 percent), and Greenville, South Carolina (0.5 percent). Work is expected to be completed in December 2023. No funds are being awarded at time of award; funds will be obligated on individual orders as they are issued. This contract was not competitively procured pursuant to 10 U.S. Code 2304(c)(1). The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity (N0001919D0014). Detyens Shipyards Inc., North Charleston, South Carolina, is being awarded a $30,106,818 firm-fixed-price contract for a 120-calendar day shipyard availability for the post shakedown of USNS Hershel ‘Woody' Williams (T-ESB 4). This contract consists of the funds listed in the following areas Category “A” work item cost, additional government requirement, other direct costs, and the general and administrative costs. Work will include furnishing general services for the ship, hull perimeter lighting, high voltage/medium voltage switchboard inspect and clean, expansion of handheld ultra-high frequency radio repeater system, segregate grey and black water transfer line, aft house habitability modifications, temporary sensitive compartment information facility installation - industrial support, additional temporary expandable units, A6 level installation of commercial broadband satellite program and OE-570 antennas, high frequency, ultra-high frequency and very high radio infrastructure, motor gasoline stowage capability, aviation support spaces heating, ventilation and air conditioning upgrade Phase I. This contract also contains options which, if exercised, would bring the cumulative contract value to $38,485,181. Work will be performed in North Charleston, South Carolina, and is expected to be completed by July 2019. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance (Navy) funds in the amount of $30,106,818 are obligated at time of award, none of which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. Funds will be obligated at time of award. Work will be completed by July 9, 2019. This contract was competitively procured via the Federal Business Opportunities website with two proposals received. The Military Sealift Command, Norfolk, Virginia, is the contracting activity (N3220519C4150). Northrop Grumman Systems Corp., Linthicum Heights, Maryland, is being awarded a $27,594,541 fixed-price incentive firm-target modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-15-C-5319) to exercise options for the production of two AN/SLQ-32(V)Y Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (SEWIP) Block 3 system low rate initial production units. SEWIP is an evolutionary acquisition and incremental development program to upgrade the existing AN/SLQ-32(V) electronic warfare system. SEWIP Block 3 will provide select Navy surface ships a scalable electronic warfare enterprise suite with improved electronic attack capabilities. Work will be performed in Linthicum, Maryland (98 percent); and Los Angeles, California (2 percent), and is expected to be completed by June 2021. Fiscal 2017 and 2018 other procurement (Navy) funding in the amount of $27,594,541 will be obligated at time of award and will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, District of Columbia, is the contracting activity. Austal USA LLC, Mobile, Alabama, is being awarded a $21,070,175 cost-plus-fixed-fee order (N6931619F4000) against previously awarded basic ordering agreement (N00024-15-G-2304) to accomplish the post shakedown availability (PSA) execution for the littoral combat ship, USS Manchester (LCS-14). This effort encompasses all of the manpower, support services, material, non-standard equipment, and associated technical data and documentation required to prepare for and accomplish the USS Manchester (LCS-14) PSA. The work to be performed will include correction of government responsible trial card deficiencies, new work identified between custody transfer and the time of PSA, and incorporation of approved engineering changes that were not incorporated during the construction period which are not otherwise the building yard's responsibility under the ship construction contract. Work will be performed in Seattle, Washington, and is expected to be completed by July 2019. Fiscal 2013 and 2019 shipbuilding and conversion (Navy); and fiscal 2018 other procurement (Navy) funding in the amount of $21,070,175 will be obligated at time of award and will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Conversion, and Repair Gulf Coast, Pascagoula, Mississippi, is the contracting activity. Fincantieri Marine Systems North America Inc., Chesapeake, Virginia, is being awarded a $17,220,420 for modification N55236-17-D-0009 to exercise option year two of previously awarded firm-fixed price, indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity to provide maintenance support for the mine countermeasure-1 class main propulsion diesel engines and ship service diesel generators. Work will be performed in the homeports of San Diego, California; Sasebo, Japan; Manama, Bahrain; and ports-of-call as required, and are scheduled to be completed by January 2020. No funding is being obligated at time of award. In accordance with 10 U.S. Code 2304(c)(1) this contract was not competitively procured. The independent contractor, under the direction of the regional maintenance center and not an agent of the government, shall provide diesel engine technical, engineering, and field service support for Mine Countermeasure-1 class ships homeported in San Diego, California, and forward deployed in Japan and Bahrain. Obligated funding will cover preventive maintenance services and travel in the base year and subsequent option years in accordance with work item specifications and work item plans, drawings, other references, the delivery schedule, and all other terms and conditions set forth in the contract. The Southwest Regional Maintenance Center, San Diego, California, is the contracting activity. Daylight Defense LLC, San Diego, California, is being awarded a $16,306,540 modification (P00012) to a previously awarded firm-fixed-price contract (N00019-16-C-0036). This modification provides for the procurement of Distributed Aperture Infrared Countermeasure Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation and Fiber Optic Cable Assemblies. This modification exercises an option for the production and delivery of 24 lasers and 26 fiber optic cable assemblies in support of the Air Force and the Navy. Work will be performed in San Diego, California, and is expected to be completed in July 2020. Fiscal 2018 and 2019 aircraft procurement (Navy and Air Force) funds in the amount of $16,306,540 will be obligated at time of award, none of which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This modification combines purchases for the Air Force ($10,799,888; 66 percent) and the Navy ($5,506,652; 34 percent). The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity. Cianbro Corp., Pittsfield, Maine, is being awarded an $11,169,941 firm-fixed-price modification for construction of the dry dock one refueling facility at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. The work to be performed provides for all changes not previously accounted for in changing the facility from a defueling facility to a refueling facility, including, but not limited to, trailer relocation, commissioning, testing and demonstrations, scaffolding, concrete installation, metal installation, insulation installation, metal wall panels, roof hatches, compression seals, doors and hardware, ceiling system, flooring, coatings, electrical, heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning, fire protection, controls, and testing and balancing. After award of this modification, the total cumulative contract value will be $50,526,989. Work will be performed in Kittery, Maine, and is expected to be completed by May 2021. Fiscal 2018 operations and maintenance (Navy) contract funds in the amount of $11,169,941 are obligated on this award and will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Mid-Atlantic, Norfolk, Virginia, is the contracting activity (N40085-17-C-5002). DMR Consulting Inc,* Panama City Beach, Florida, is being awarded a $9,426,737 firm-fixed–price, indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract for depot level repair, overhaul, and modification for the MK-105 magnetic minesweeping gear. This contract supports the depot level repair and maintenance of the MK105 magnetic minesweeping gear. The MK105 Magnetic Influence Minesweeping system, better known as the “sled”, is a high speed catamaran hydrofoil platform which is towed behind the MH-53E helicopter and is used to sweep magnetic influence mines. This contract includes options which, if exercised, would bring the cumulative value to $48,318,732. Work will be performed in Panama City, Florida, and is expected to be completed by December 2019. This contract was competitively procured via the Federal Business Opportunities website, with three offers received. The Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division is the contracting activity. (N61331-19-D-0002) MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY The Boeing Co., Huntsville, Alabama, is being awarded a five-year, sole-source, cost-plus-award-fee contract (HQ0147-19-C-0001). The total value of this contract is $240,204,960. Under this follow-on contract, the contractor will provide the Missile Defense Agency support by performing highly complex technical systems engineering and integration requirements related to the Ballistic Missile Defense system. The work will be performed in Huntsville, Alabama. The period of performance is from Dec. 15, 2018, through Dec. 14, 2023. One offer was solicited and one offer was received. Fiscal 2019 research, development, test and evaluation funds will be used to incrementally fund this award in the amount of $54,900,000. The Missile Defense Agency, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, is the contracting activity (HQ0147-19-C-0001). DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY SupplyCore Inc.,* Rockford, Illinois, has been awarded a maximum $80,000,000 firm-fixed-price, bridge contract for facilities maintenance, repair and operations items. This was a sole-source acquisition using justification 10 U.S. Code 2304 (c)(1), as stated in Federal Acquisition Regulation 6.302-1. This is a one-year contract with no option periods. Location of performance is the north central region of the U.S. with a Dec. 18, 2019, performance completion date. Using military services are Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps. Type of appropriation is fiscal 2019 through 2020 defense working capital funds. The contracting activity is the Defense Logistics Agency Troop Support, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (SPE8E3-19-D0003). Michelin North America Inc., Greenville, South Carolina, is awarded an estimated $11,838,003 fixed-price, indefinite-delivery, requirements contract for various types of tires supporting the Global Tire program. This was a competitive acquisition with five responses received. A total of three contracts are awarded as a result of the subject solicitation. This is a three-year contract with no option periods. Location of performance is South Carolina, with a Dec. 20, 2021, performance completion date. Using customer is Defense Logistics Agency. Type of appropriation is fiscal 2019 through 2021 defense working capital funds. The contracting activity is the Defense Logistics Agency Land and Maritime, Columbus, Ohio (SPE7LX-19-D-0034). Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, is awarded an estimated $10,786,368 fixed-price, indefinite-delivery, requirements contract for various types of tires supporting the Global Tire program. This was a competitive acquisition with five responses received. A total of three contracts are awarded as a result of the subject solicitation. This is a three-year contract with no option periods. Location of performance is Ohio, with a Dec. 20, 2021, performance completion date. Using customer is Defense Logistics Agency. Type of appropriation is fiscal 2019 through 2021 defense working capital funds. The contracting activity is the Defense Logistics Agency Land and Maritime, Columbus, Ohio (SPE7LX-19-D-0033). Consumer Fuels Inc.,* Huntsville, Alabama, has been awarded a $7,433,117 firm-fixed-price contract for the 105mm Light Towed Howitzer's MVSS sensor head kit. This is a five-year contract with no option periods. This was a competitive small business set-aside acquisition with five offers received. Location of performance is Alabama, with a May 29, 2020, performance completion date. Using military service is Army. Type of appropriation is fiscal 2019 defense working capital funds. The contracting activity is the Defense Logistics Agency Land and Maritime, Warren, Michigan (SPRDL1-19-D-0022). Mast Technologies Inc.,* San Diego, California, has been awarded a $7,718,000 firm-fixed-price contract for rubber tiles that support the Navy's Passive Counter Measure Material systems. This is a sole-source acquisition using justification 10 U.S. Code 2304(c)(1), as stated in Federal Acquisition Regulation 6.302-1. This is a two-year contract with no option periods. Location of performance is California, with a Jan. 4, 2021, performance completion date. Using military service is Navy. Type of appropriation is fiscal 2019 Navy working capital funds. The contracting activity is Defense Logistics Agency, Land and Maritime, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania (SPRMM1-19-C-HA10). UPDATE: Clark Equipment Company, Statesville, North Carolina, (SPE8EC-19-D-0036) has been added as an awardee to the multiple award contract for commercial portable power equipment, issued against solicitation SPE8EC-17-R-0010, announced May 31, 2017. DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE Ernst and Young, Washington, District of Columbia, has been awarded a labor-hour contract option with a maximum value of $36,467,951 to provide financial statement audit services for the Navy. Work will be performed in Alexandria, Virginia, with an expected completion date of Dec. 31, 2019. The contract option has a 12-month option period with two individual one-year option periods remaining. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance Navy funds are being obligated at the time of the award. The cumulative value of the contract, including the option is $73,632,391. The Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Contract Services Directorate, Columbus, Ohio, is the contracting activity (HQ0423-17-F-0101). KPMG LLP, McLean, Virginia, has been awarded a fixed-price contract option with a maximum value of $11,647,639 for audit services of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Civil Works (CW) and suballotted funds financial statements. Work will be performed in McLean, Virginia, with an expected completion date of Dec.31, 2019. This contract is the result of a competitive acquisition for which three quotes were received. The contract had a 12-month base period plus four individual one-year option periods, with a maximum value of $57,693,820. This award brings the total cumulative value of the contract to $21,440,433. Fiscal 2019 USACE CW revolving funds in the amount of $11,647,639 are being obligated at the time of this option award. The Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Contract Services Directorate, Columbus, Ohio, is the contracting activity (HQ0423-18-F-0039). DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EDUCATION ACTIVITY Sumitomo Mitsui Auto Service Co. Ltd., Japan (HE1254-19-D-2000), is awarded an indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity, multiple-award contract for lease bus and maintenance services for daily student transportation in the amount of $33,702,302. The location of performance is mainland Japan. The award is for a five-year base period ending July 31, 2024; and a five-year option period ending July 31, 2029. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance funds will be used to fund the initial task order. This contract was competitively procured via request for proposal HE1254-18-R-2001, with two offers received. The contracting activity is the Department of Defense Education Activity, Alexandria, Virginia. U.S. TRANSPORTATION COMMAND Phoenix Air Group Inc., Cartersville, Georgia, was awarded task order,HTC71119FR019, exercising option period three, on contract HTC71116DR001 in the amount of $8,797,654. The task order provides headquarters U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) continued Charter Air Transportation services. Work will be performed in Stuttgart Army Airfield, Germany, to various points throughout Africa and Europe. The period of performance is from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 2019. Fiscal 2019 AFRICOM operation and maintenance funds were obligated at award. The total cumulative face value of the contract value increased from $39,352,268 to $48,149,922. U.S. Transportation Command, Directorate of Acquisition, Scott Air Force Base, Illinois, is the contracting activity. *Small business https://dod.defense.gov/News/Contracts/Contract-View/Article/1720584/source/GovDelivery/

  • Despite delay, 'mixed reality' goggle for soldiers, Marines on schedule for 2022

    7 janvier 2022 | International, Naval, C4ISR

    Despite delay, 'mixed reality' goggle for soldiers, Marines on schedule for 2022

    Developers expect the device in troops' hands after further testing.

  • Securing the final frontier: Digital twins, satellites and cybersecurity

    3 novembre 2020 | International, Aérospatial, C4ISR, Sécurité

    Securing the final frontier: Digital twins, satellites and cybersecurity

    Kevin Coggins The United States and our allies are increasingly dependent on unfettered access to space. However, it has become abundantly clear that our space systems have significant cybersecurity vulnerabilities that our adversaries are eager to exploit. Earlier this year, William Akoto wrote about the growing constellations of satellites operated by private industry, led by SpaceX, Blue Origin and others: “If hackers were to take control of these satellites, the consequences could be dire. On the mundane end of scale, hackers could simply shut satellites down, denying access to their services. Hackers could also jam or spoof the signals from satellites, creating havoc for critical infrastructure. This includes electric grids, water networks and transportation systems.” Space Policy Directive 5, recently issued by the White House, notes that “cybersecurity principles and practices that apply to terrestrial systems also apply to space systems” and that we must integrate these principles and practices into every phase of the space system life cycle. SPD-5 is charting the right course toward assuring our cybersecurity in the space domain. This article highlights the unique vulnerabilities of space systems and how innovative solutions like “digital twins” can help us protect systems in orbit today and design more secure ones for the future. Cyberattacks on space systems — comprised of satellites, ground control stations, and user terminals (e.g., GPS receivers) — are appealing to nation-states, criminal groups, hackers and other bad actors. It's a tremendous opportunity to breach data and disrupt operations in a low-risk way with a low cost of execution. The different components that make up space systems each come with their own set of cyber vulnerabilities, the ground segment in particular. Some space systems were built with speed to market rather than cybersecurity in mind. In contrast, for traditional defense-focused space systems, a slower design and development process has introduced vulnerabilities as well. Space systems operating today may have taken a full 20 years to go from paper to launch and lack the capabilities to recognize or respond to today's cyberthreats. Space systems are increasingly interconnected — a malicious attack can easily spread from a single point of vulnerability in a ground station to the satellites. Cybersecurity in space systems has struggled to keep pace with the rapid evolution of threat actors and exploits. Given these challenges, how can organizations with space systems stay ahead of cyberthreats and protect their missions and users? The older approach of paper-based assessments has significant limitations, like the inability to duplicate reactions to all possible scenarios. At the other end of the spectrum, full-scale replicas are expensive and time-consuming to build. In the middle is the “digital twin” concept — a virtual mirror model that synchronizes a physical object with a cyber representation. With this approach, organizations can test a satellite in different scenarios to identify vulnerabilities and develop protection strategies, even before the satellite is built. One specific project that demonstrated digital twins' strengths and capabilities: testing Air Force GPS space systems for vulnerabilities after the passage of Section 1647 of the 2016 National Defense Authorization Act. Starting with a model-based system engineering review of thousands of pages of design documents, we built a digital replica of critical GPS Block IIR satellite components launched between 1987 and 2004 that ran on a single laptop with lightweight applications. Our digital twin created the foundation for a flexible cyber test bed — a suite of scalable software applications to demonstrate and validate cyber vulnerabilities and protection strategies as the system is designed or modified. The test bed can connect with assets beyond the network to generate data, provide war-gaming support and explore attack scenarios. We need this flexibility and functionality for future space system protection. The next generation of satellites will encounter more extreme service conditions and increased, simultaneous cyberattack vectors over longer periods of time. To respond to these challenges, these space systems will need increasingly complex designs, and with such complexity comes potentially greater vulnerability to cyberattacks and threats. Digital twins and model-based system engineering approaches can strengthen security throughout the acquisition and sustainment phases. Use them to: Develop system requirements and analyze design trades. Create test scenarios for requirements clarification and reference systems. Simulate threats, anomalies and impacts without risk to critical infrastructure. Assess the impact of new threats or operational scenarios on an on-orbit system design. What can space system acquisition professionals, developers and operators learn here? Digital twins offer an innovative approach that can streamline and strengthen the testing and design process of our space assets. They can also provide insights on as-built systems and enable the buydown of risks across the space system life cycle, enabling affordability across the entire system life cycle. Now is the time to leverage their capabilities, to ensure that the space infrastructure so vital to our security and American way of life has the protection it requires. https://www.c4isrnet.com/opinion/2020/11/02/securing-the-final-frontier-digital-twins-satellites-and-cybersecurity/

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