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December 20, 2018 | International, C4ISR

How 5G Will Shape Innovation and Security

Executive Summary

  • The fifth generation of mobile network technologies, known as “5G,” promises greater speed, security, and capacity. 5G will underpin the internet economy and provide the backbone for the next generation of digital technologies. So, it is unsurprising that there is intense competition among companies and countries for 5G leadership.
  • 5G will determine the direction the internet will take and where nations will face new risks and vulnerabilities. Who makes 5G technologies will affect security and innovation in an increasingly competitive technological environment. Decisions made today about 5G will affect national security and economic performance for decades to come.
  • This is a competition among companies and groups of companies but also a competition between market-based and state-directed decisionmaking. The United States has relied on the former, China on the latter, and Europe falls somewhere in between.
  • American technology remains essential for 5G mobile telecommunications. American companies have been strong performers in developing 5G technologies, but the United States and its allies face a fundamental challenge from China. The focus of competition is over 5G's intellectual property, standards, and patents. Huawei, for example, has research programs to develop alternatives to American suppliers, and U.S. trade restrictions have accelerated China's efforts to develop its own 5G industry.
  • While American companies lead in making essential 5G technologies, there are no longer any U.S. manufacturers of core telecommunications network equipment. Four companies dominate the market for the core network technologies needed for 5G networks. None of these companies are American. 1The choices are between European security partners (Ericsson and Nokia) and China (Huawei and ZTE).
  • Telecom is a strategic industry and having two companies with close ties to a hostile power creates risk for the United States and its allies. A secure supply chain for 5G closes off dangerous areas of risk for national security in terms of espionage and the potential disruption to critical infrastructures. China's aggressive global campaign of cyber espionage makes it certain that it will exploit the opportunities it gains as a 5G supplier.
  • One way to envision this is to imagine that the person who built your house decides to burgle it. They know the layout, the power system, the access points, may have kept a key, and perhaps even built in a way to gain surreptitious entry. Major telecom “backbone” equipment connects to the manufacturer over a dedicated channel, reporting back on equipment status and receiving updates and software patches as needed, usually without the operator's knowledge. Equipment could be sold and installed in perfectly secure condition, and a month later, the manufacture could send a software update to create vulnerabilities or disrupt service. The operator and its customers would have no knowledge of this change.
  • The United States can manage 5G risk using two sets of policies. The first is to ensure that American companies can continue to innovate and produce advanced technologies and face fair competition overseas. American and “like-minded” companies routinely outspend their Chinese competitors in 5G R&D and hold 10 times as many 5G patents. Chinese companies still depend on the western companies for the most advanced 5G components.
  • The second is to work with like-minded nations to develop a common approach to 5G security. The United States cannot meet the 5G challenge on its own. When the United States successfully challenged Chinese industrial policy in the past, it has been done in concert with allies.
  • Another task will be to find ways to encourage undecided countries to spend on 5G security. Huawei's telecom networks cost between 20 to 30 percent less than competing products. Huawei also offers foreign customers generous terms for leasing or loans. It can do this because of its access to government funds. Beijing supports Huawei for both strategic and commercial reasons. Many countries will be tempted by the steep discount. Not buying Huawei means paying a “premium” for security to which economic ministries are likely to object. The United States will need to encourage others to pay this security premium while at the same time preparing for a world where the United States unavoidably connects to Huawei-supplied networks and determine how to securely connect and communicate over telecom networks in countries using Chinese network equipment.
  • The United States does not need to copy China's government-centric model for 5G, but it does need to invest in research and adopt a comprehensive approach to combatting non-tariff barriers to trade. 5G leadership requires a broader technology competition policy in the United States that builds the engineering and tech workforce and supports both private and public R&D. The United States also needs to ensure that U.S. companies do not face obstacles from antitrust or patent infringement investigations undertaken by other countries to obtain competitive advantage.
  • In the twentieth century, steel, coal, automobiles, aircraft, ships, and the ability to produce things in mass quantity were the sources of national power. The foundations of security and power are different today. The ability to create and use new technologies is the source of economic strength and military security. Technology, and the capacity to create new technologies, are the basis of information age power. 5G as the cornerstone of a new digital environment is the focal point for the new competition, where the United States is well-positioned to lead but neither success nor security are guaranteed without action.

This report is made possible by general support to CSIS. No direct sponsorship contributed to this report.

https://www.csis.org/analysis/how-5g-will-shape-innovation-and-security

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  • Army Braces For Post-COVID Cuts: Gen. Murray

    May 21, 2020 | International, Land

    Army Braces For Post-COVID Cuts: Gen. Murray

    “I've heard some people talk about [going] back to a BCA [Budget Control Act] level of funding,” Gen. Murray says, referring to the steep cuts also known as sequestration. “And I've heard some people say that it's even going to be worse than BCA.” By SYDNEY J. FREEDBERG JR.on May 20, 2020 at 1:11 PM WASHINGTON: Over the last two years, the Army has cut or cancelled more than 240 programs to free billions for its 34 top priorities, from hypersonic missiles to new rifles. Some of those 34 may have to die as the economy and budget reel from the COVID-19 pandemic, . “I start off with what Secretary Esper and Secretary McCarthy have said consistently, across DoD: three to five real growth is what we need,” said Gen. Mike Murray, chief of Army Futures Command. “Given what's going on in this country over the last two or three months.... my personal expectation is we're not going to see three to five percent growth. We'll be lucky to see a flat line.” LRPF: Long-Range Precision Fires. NGCV: Next-Generation Combat Vehicle. FVL: Future Vertical Lift. AMD: Air & Missile Defense. SL: Soldier Lethality. SOURCE: US Army. (Click to expand) While the Army is still working on its long-term spending plan for 2022-2026, the future topline is very much in doubt. “I've heard some people talk about [going] back to a BCA [Budget Control Act] level of funding,” Murray told an online AOC conference yesterday, referring to the steep cuts also known as sequestration. “And I've heard some people say that it's even going to be worse than BCA.” “I do think budgets are going to get tighter,” Murray said. “I do think that decisions are going to get harder.” Across its actual and projected budgets for 2020 through 2025, despite a slight drop in its topline, the Army has moved $40 billion from lower-priority programs to the 34 “signature programs.” Murray's Futures Command runs 31 of the 34, grouped in six portfolios: long-range rocket and cannon artillery is No. 1, followed by new armored vehicles, Future Vertical Lift aircraft, an upgraded battlefield network, air & missile defense, and soldier gear. Meanwhile, three most technologically demanding programs – including hypersonics and high-energy lasers – are handled by the independent Rapid Capabilities & Critical Technology Office. “We're prioritizing what I call the 31 plus 3,” Murray said. “We have fully funded those priorities in the program at the expense of a lot of other things.” The XM1299 Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ERCA) howitzer in an earlier test shot last year. But Army leaders have already warned that the Big Six will need more funding as they move from concept to prototype to mass production. Even a flat budget topline will be tight — and COVID makes flat the best-scare scenario. 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But each of the Big Six includes multiple programs, and the Army has never expected all 34 to succeed. That's a crucial difference from the service's last major modernization drive, the Future Combat Systems cancelled in 2009, which depended on each of its 20 component technologies working as planned. Army slide showing the elements of the (later canceled) Future Combat System “Is there room for failures? Yes,” Murray told reporters at an Association of the US Army conference last year. “This concept does not count on any specific piece of capability.” That doesn't make cuts painless or easy, however. “Our priorities are our priorities for a reason,” Murray said yesterday. The Army's current weapons, from missiles to tanks to helicopters, largely entered service in the Reagan era. They've been much upgraded since, but there's only so much add-on armor, souped-up horsepower, and advanced electronics a 40-year chassis can take. The Army says it needs new weapons to take it into the next 40 years. “The kids running around on armored vehicles today are riding... fundamentally the same vehicles I rode around in as a company commander, way back when,” Murray said. “My now five-year-old granddaughter [lives] up the road at Fort Hood, Texas... I've got eight grandchildren, and out of all of them, I have absolutely no doubt that she is my infantry company commander wearing an Airborne Ranger tab at some point in the future. So that makes it personal for me.” https://breakingdefense.com/2020/05/army-braces-for-post-covid-cuts-gen-murray

  • MBDA sélectionné dans un programme de lutte anti-drones de l’Union européenne

    May 6, 2022 | International, Aerospace

    MBDA sélectionné dans un programme de lutte anti-drones de l’Union européenne

    MBDA France a été sélectionné au sein d'un consortium de 42 sociétés par l'Union européenne pour développer une nouvelle architecture de lutte anti-drones. 14 pays européens, dont la France, sont regroupés sur ce programme de développement qui pourrait déboucher sur un programme financé par le fonds européen de défense. MBDA sera en charge, notamment, du développement d'un nouvel effecteur, et de la démonstration qui aura lieu sous deux ans, la durée maximale du programme de 13,5 M€. Plusieurs entités françaises ont également été retenues tels que CILAS, spécialiste français du laser, l'Onera, Thales et CS Group. La France avait lancé ses dernières années plusieurs programmes de lutte anti-drones, dont le MILAD (moyen interarmées de lutte anti-drone), qui n'avait pas eu les résultats attendus par les armées. L'armée de l'Air et de l'Espace avait eu plus de succès avec Hologarde, en développant une approche plus opérationnelle, qui assure un meilleur taux de détection. Air & Cosmos du 3 mai

  • Contract Awards by US Department of Defense - March 26, 2019

    March 29, 2019 | International, Aerospace, Naval, Land, C4ISR, Security, Other Defence

    Contract Awards by US Department of Defense - March 26, 2019

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(Awarded March 25, 2019) Raytheon Co., Indianapolis, Indiana, was awarded a $49,989,867 firm-fixed-price, cost-plus-fixed-fee, indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract in support of radar antenna system overhauls, coatings, shipboard installations and removals, and incidental technical support services for the following Radar Restoration Program systems: AN/SPS-48, AN/SPS-49, AN/SPS-67(V)1, AN/SPS-40, AN/SPS-73, AN/SPS-67(V)3/5, AN/SPQ-9B, AN/SPS-55, AN/SPS-75 and AN/SPS-77. All systems in the Radar Restoration Program are in the sustainment phase of their life cycle. The restored systems provided via this contract action are the above-deck components. The systems, subsystems, subassemblies and components are critical shipboard systems providing detect-to-engage capability to defend against incoming enemy aircraft and/or missiles. Some systems provide safe navigation processes for collision avoidance. This contract involves foreign military sales to Taiwan. 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This modification exercises an option for the procurement of three APY-10 Radar System production kits for the Navy, four for the government of the United Kingdom, and five for the government of Norway, as well as related services in support of P-8A Poseidon Lot 10 production aircraft. Work will be performed in McKinney, Texas (77.1 percent); Andover, Massachusetts (7.2 percent); Chelmsford, Massachusetts (3.4 percent); Woodland Park, New Jersey (3.3 percent); Black Mountain, North Carolina (1.8 percent); San Carlos, California (1.7 percent); Ashburn, Virginia (1.6 percent); Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada (1.4 percent); Simsbury, Connecticut (1.3 percent); and Clearwater, Florida (1.2 percent), and is expected to be completed in September 2022. Fiscal 2019 aircraft procurement (Navy); and Foreign Military Sales (FMS) funds in the amount of $39,718,809 will be obligated at time of award, none of which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. 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This contract was not competitively procured pursuant to Federal Acquisition Regulation 6.302-1. The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity (N00019-19-C-0052). Noble Sales Co. Inc.,* Rockland, Massachusetts, is awarded a $14,126,593 firm-fixed-price blanket purchase agreement contract to stock, store, and issue supplies, construction materials, and hardware in support of Naval Facilities Engineering Command Hawaii, Joint Base Pearl Harbor Hickam, Oahu, Hawaii. The contract will include a 12-month base period, four one-year option periods, and a six-month extension, which if exercised, the total value of this contract will be $79,409,916. Work will be performed in Oahu, Hawaii, and is expected to be completed by March 2020; if all options are exercised, work will be completed by September 2024. 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This contract provides contractor logistics support for the Precision Strike Package in support of the AC-130W and AC-130J. Work will be performed at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico; and Hurlburt Field, Florida, and is expected to be complete by Sept. 30, 2026. This award is the result of a sole-source acquisition. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance funds in the amount of $26,784,295 are being obligated at the time of award. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, is the contracting activity (FA8509‐19‐D‐0001). DZYNE Technologies Inc., Fairfax, Virginia, has been awarded a $48,990,806 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for Mobile Onboard Nexus for Autonomy and Radical Computation Handling (MONARCH) Small Business Innovative Research III effort. This contract provides for further development of technologies they have established under previous and current contracts, and the rapid development and maturation of novel Airborne, Space, and Terrestrial (ground) technologies and systems so that MONARCH technologies and associated capabilities can be transitioned to military markets. Work will be performed in Irvine, California, and is expected to be complete by March 27, 2024. This award is the result of a sole-source acquisition. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the contracting activity (FA8650-19-C-9203). (Awarded March 25, 2019) General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., Poway, California, has been awarded a $9,211,561 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for the United Kingdom (UK) MQ-9 Reaper contractor logistics support effort. This contract provides for ongoing sustainment of the UK MQ-9 fleet. Work will be performed at multiple stateside and international locations, and is expected to be completed by June 30, 2019. This award is the result of a sole-source acquisition and involves 100 percent foreign military sales to the government of the United Kingdom. Foreign military sales funds in the full amount are being obligated at the time of award. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the contracting activity (FA8620-15-G-4040 0017 21). ARMY Valiant Global Defense Services Inc., San Diego, California, was awarded a $60,685,000 modification (P00013) to contract W91247-18-C-0001 for mission support services. Work will be performed in Fort Polk, Louisiana, with an estimated completion date of March 26, 2023. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance, Army funds in the amount of $60,685,000 were obligated at the time of the award. U.S. Army Mission and Installation Contracting Command, Fort Polk, Louisiana, is the contracting activity. Up-Side Management Co.,* Hubert, North Carolina, was awarded a $46,000,000 firm-fixed-price contract for general construction and repair. Bids were solicited via the internet with 33 received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of March 25, 2024. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile, Alabama, is the contracting activity (W91278-19-D-0017). Widman Inc.,* Godfrey, Illinois, was awarded a $30,000,000 firm-fixed-price contract for upper-river land repair. Bids were solicited via the internet with seven received. Work will be performed in West Alton, Missouri, with an estimated completion date of March 25, 2024. Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance, Army funds in the amount of $30,000 were obligated at the time of the award. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis, Missouri, is the contracting activity (W912P9-19-D-0003). Widman Inc.,* Godfrey, Illinois, was awarded a $15,000,000 firm-fixed-price contract for lower-river land repair. Bids were solicited via the internet with five received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of March 25, 2024. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis, Missouri, is the contracting activity (W912P9-19-D-0004). Mississippi Department of Rehabilitation Services, Madison, Mississippi, was awarded a $14,523,875 firm-fixed-price contract for dining facility management functions. One bid was solicited with one bid received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Sept. 30, 2024. U.S. Property and Fiscal Office for Mississippi is the contracting activity (W9127Q-19-D-0001). 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Fiscal 2019 operations and maintenance, Army; other procurement, Army; and research, development, test and evaluation funds in the amount of $8,656,308 were obligated at the time of the award. U.S. Army Contracting Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, is the contracting activity. MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY Lockheed Martin Corp., Sunnyvale, California, was awarded a $30,000,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract modification (P00015) to a previously awarded HQ0277-18-C-0001 contract. The value of this contract is increased from $36,000,000 to $66,000,000. Under this modification, the contractor will complete their laser scaling and beam control critical design review in support of the Low Power Laser Demonstrator risk reduction. The work will be performed in Sunnyvale, California. The period of performance for this effort is Oct. 6, 2017, to Sept. 6, 2019. Fiscal 2019 research, development, test and evaluation funds in the amount of $29,951,935 are being obligated on this award. The Missile Defense Agency, Albuquerque, New Mexico, is the contracting activity. General Atomics, San Diego, California, was awarded a $29,000,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract modification (P00017) to a previously awarded HQ0277-18-C-0002 contract. The value of this contract is increased from $33,000,000 to $62,000,000. Under this modification, the contractor will complete their laser scaling and beam control critical design review in support of the Low Power Laser Demonstrator risk reduction. The work will be performed in San Diego, California. The period of performance for this effort is Nov. 6, 2017, to Sept. 6, 2019. Fiscal 2019 research, development, test and evaluation funds in the amount of $28,955,517 are being obligated on this award. The Missile Defense Agency, Albuquerque, New Mexico, is the contracting activity. Boeing Co., Huntsville, Alabama, was awarded a $29,000,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract modification (P00019) to a previously awarded HQ0277-18-C-0003 contract. 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