13 octobre 2021 | International, Aérospatial, Naval, Terrestre, C4ISR, Sécurité

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  • US military posture in Asia could change if China declares another Air Defense Identification Zone

    1 octobre 2018 | International, Aérospatial

    US military posture in Asia could change if China declares another Air Defense Identification Zone

    By: Kyle Rempfer If China goes forward with plans to establish another Air Defense Identification Zone in the region, the U.S. could be forced to change its military posture in Asia, a senior national security official said this week. “We oppose China’s establishment of an ADIZ in other areas, including the South China Sea,” Evan Medeiros, the senior director for Asian affairs at the National Security Council, said in an interview with Japan Times. “We have been very clear with the Chinese that we would see that [setting of another ADIZ] as a provocative and destabilizing development that would result in changes in our presence and military posture in the region." An ADIZ is airspace over land or water in which the identification, location and control of aircraft is jointly performed by civilian air traffic control and military authorities in the interest of a country’s national security. China set up one ADIZ over the East China Sea in 2013, which many viewed as an attempt to try and bolster its claims over disputed territories, like the uninhabited Senkaku islands. China began to elevate its claims to the Japan-controlled Senkaku Islands in the 1970s after studies indicated there may be vast oil reserves in the surrounding sea bed, according to Japan Times. The United States is obligated to defend aggression against territories under Japanese administration under Article 5 of the U.S.-Japan Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security. Defense Secretary James Mattis reaffirmed in 2017 that the defense obligation extends to the Senkakus. “I made clear that our longstanding policy on the Senkaku Islands stands,” Mattis said, according to a Pentagon transcript. “The United States will continue to recognize Japanese administration of the islands.” U.S. officials have also criticized China for setting up an ADIZ that overlaps with similar zones operated by Japan, South Korea and Taiwan without prior consultation. The Chinese have labeled recent missions by nuclear-capable U.S. Air Force B-52 bombers over the South China Sea as “provocative." Two separate B-52s also flew over the East China Sea this week. The Pentagon called all of these flights routine. “If it was 20 years ago and had they not militarized those features there, it would have been just another bomber on its way to [Naval Support Facility] Diego Garcia or wherever,” Mattis told the press, according to a Pentagon transcript. “So there’s nothing out of the ordinary about it." China has also been accused of militarizing the South China Sea — which includes important shipping routes, fisheries and hydrocarbons. The Chinese military has built islands on existing reefs and placed airstrips, radars, missiles and other military equipment on them. Multiple other countries in the region, to include Vietnam and the Philippines, claim portions of the South China Sea as well. https://www.airforcetimes.com/news/2018/09/28/us-military-posture-in-asia-could-change-if-china-declares-another-air-defense-identification-zone

  • Gripen E/F le dernier appareil suédois ?

    2 décembre 2019 | International, Aérospatial

    Gripen E/F le dernier appareil suédois ?

    Yannick Smaldore Il y a douze ans, Saab annonçait la production du Gripen Demo, un démonstrateur technologique représentatif d’une nouvelle génération de chasseurs légers Gripen que le constructeur suédois entendait lancer tant sur le marché domestique qu’à l’exportation. Après un parcours parfois mouvementé, la dernière mouture de l’avion, le Gripen E/F, s’apprête à être livrée à ses deux clients. L’occasion pour DSI de revenir sur l’unique programme de chasseur de nouvelle génération actuellement en développement en Europe. En avril 2008, sur le site de Linköping, en Suède, Saab dévoile le Gripen Demo, adapté d’une cellule de Gripen D et première étape vers la prochaine génération de chasseurs légers de l’avionneur suédois. Si l’avion se rapproche extérieurement d’un Gripen biplace standard, un œil averti distingue rapidement des différences loin d’être anodines. Gripen NG, un nouvel ancien avion Le train d’atterrissage principal, qui se rétracte habituellement sous le fuselage, a été déplacé dans des logements conformes sous la voilure, permettant d’installer trois points d’emport ventraux au lieu d’un, mais aussi de combler les anciens logements de roues par des réservoirs internes supplémentaires. Les entrées d’air sont également agrandies afin d’alimenter un unique moteur F414 de General Electric, évolution 20 % plus puissante du F404 produit sous licence par Volvo pour le Gripen de base. Pour sa prochaine itération du Gripen, l’avionneur suédois propose d’intégrer dans cette cellule élargie ce qui se fait de mieux en matière de capteurs et de systèmes de combat. Le tout en respectant une enveloppe budgétaire extrêmement réduite (1) et un calendrier très serré, et en gardant comme ambition de redéfinir complètement la gestion des programmes aéronautiques militaires, rien de moins. Et une décennie plus tard, malgré quelques revers, Saab pourrait bien être en passe de tenir (presque) toutes ses promesses avec son Gripen NG (2). En 2011, la Suisse annonce son intention de commander 22 Gripen NG, ouvrant la voie à une commande de 60 exemplaires de la part de la Flygvapnet suédoise, et aux crédits de développement associés. En 2014, c’est au tour du Brésil de passer une commande ferme pour 36 appareils. Mais le programme connaît un premier coup dur, une votation populaire conduisant la Suisse à annuler sa commande d’avions de combat, ce qui force Saab à ralentir sensiblement son calendrier de développement. Avec plus d’un an de retard, en mai 2016, le premier Gripen E de présérie est dévoilé à la presse et montre immédiatement le paradoxe de ce nouvel appareil : à part une cellule plus longue de 50 cm et quelques différences extérieures, le futur de l’aviation de combat tel qu’annoncé par Saab ressemble à s’y méprendre au Gripen originel. Et pourtant, les évolutions techniques, numériques, conceptuelles et managériales sont bien là, discrètes, mais indispensables à la réussite du programme. Le Gripen E/F sur le plan technique Conserver une cellule pratiquement inchangée découle d’un choix stratégique de la part de Saab qui ne dispose pas des ressources pour développer une toute nouvelle plate-forme, et qui estime que les avancées en matière de capteurs et de travail collaboratif intra-patrouille rendent caduque la furtivité passive des avions dits de cinquième génération. Son Gripen étant déjà relativement discret et bien né, il est décidé d’en conserver l’aérodynamisme autant que possible. Avec une masse maximale passée de 14 t à 16,5 t, un emport en carburant interne augmenté de 40 % et la capacité d’emporter de nouveaux réservoirs externes plus volumineux, le Gripen NG ambitionne toutefois de s’extraire de la catégorie des chasseurs de défense légers pour marcher sur les plates-bandes des biréacteurs médians. Par rapport au Gripen C/D, les Gripen E/F voient l’intégralité de leurs systèmes évoluer vers des équipements de dernière génération. En matière de capteurs, Saab a principalement fait appel à Selex‑ES, depuis intégré à Leonardo. Ce dernier fournit le radar Raven ES‑05, variante du Vixen 1000E. Équipé d’une antenne AESA combinée à un repositionneur mécanique, le Raven possède une ouverture de 200°, contre 140° habituellement pour les radars AESA à antenne fixe. Une telle configuration permet théoriquement de continuer à illuminer une cible alors que le Gripen se trouve sur un vecteur d’éloignement, une capacité qui pourrait donc être exploitée en combat aérien à longue portée. L’IFF Mode 5 intégré au bloc radar est doté d’antennes latérales, afin de garantir une identification de la cible sur l’ensemble du champ d’action du radar, et une optronique infrarouge Skyward‑G est implantée au-dessus du radar. Cet IRST constituerait alors le principal outil de détection contre des cibles furtives. Radar, IRST et IFF sont enfin conçus pour travailler de manière collaborative, chaque équipement contribuant à construire une situation tactique unique que le pilote consulte sur son très large affichage principal, composé d’un unique écran tactile WAD (Wild Aera Display). Comme souvent avec les productions suédoises, le Gripen E/F devrait aussi se démarquer du marché par son équipement de communication et de guerre électronique. En plus des radios tactiques numériques et d’une antenne SATCOM, qui s’imposent de manière standard sur les nouveaux avions de combat, Saab propose plusieurs solutions de liaisons de données, notamment la L‑16 compatible OTAN, mais aussi son Link-­TAU à grande bande passante. Fonctionnant en bande UHF, il permet aux Gripen d’une même patrouille d’échanger des données à longue distance et, dans un avenir proche, de fusionner les données issues de leurs capteurs respectifs pour affiner la qualification des pistes et la situation tactique. Pour la guerre électronique, Saab propose son système à large bande MFS-EW, dernière évolution de sa gamme AREXIS. Typique de l’état de l’art en la matière, ce système multifonction est basé sur des antennes AESA en nitrure de gallium (GaN) réparties sur la dérive et au niveau des rails lance-­missiles. AREXIS s’appuie largement sur l’usage de systèmes de brouillage à mémoire de fréquence radio numérique, ou DRFM, qui analysent le signal radar adverse et émettent une onde retour modifiée. De quoi tromper l’ennemi sur sa position, sa nature ou sa vitesse, voire de disparaître complètement de certains écrans radars, en théorie. Si de tels systèmes se rencontrent déjà aujourd’hui, notamment sur le Rafale ou sur l’EA‑18G Growler, le Gripen NG innoverait par la capacité de traitement de signal offerte de ses calculateurs, sa capacité d’attaque électronique intégrée, mais aussi par la présence du système BriteCloud de Leonardo, un petit brouilleur DRFM éjecté par les lance-­leurres de l’avion et spécifiquement conçu pour tromper les missiles assaillants. https://www.areion24.news/2019/11/29/gripen-e-f-le-dernier-appareil-suedois%E2%80%89/

  • Making DoD Security Operations Centers More Effective: Security Automation

    13 juillet 2020 | International, C4ISR, Sécurité

    Making DoD Security Operations Centers More Effective: Security Automation

    Security orchestration, automation, and response (SOAR) software frees DoD analysts to apply cognitive skills to actually fixing problems. By   SPLUNKon July 10, 2020 at 6:39 PM The Defense Department’s most recent National Defense Strategy (NDS) describes a complex military environment characterized by increased global disorder, a decline in the long-standing rules-based international order, myriad threats from rogue states like Iran and North Korea, great power peers like China and Russia, malicious hackers, and terrorists in places like Yemen. One of the military domains where this dynamic is most evident is cyberspace, where bad actors arguably have comparable or better cyber capabilities than us. “This increasingly complex security environment is defined by rapid technological change, challenges from adversaries in every operating domain, and the impact on current readiness from the longest continuous stretch of armed conflict in our nation’s history,” the NDS states. “In this environment, there can be no complacency—we must make difficult choices and prioritize what is most important…” More cybersecurity threats mean more cyberattacks on DoD networks. Essye Miller, former principal deputy for the DoD CIO, said recently that attacks on department networks are surging and that the attack surface is expanding as adversaries target DoD employees working from home during the coronavirus pandemic. This surge in cyberattacks means that analysts working in DoD information security operations centers (SOCs) are being bombarded with security alerts. With so many events, it’s hard for them to differentiate true alerts from false ones, and to determine which events are priorities to address immediately. Through no fault of their own, they end up chasing their tail  when their time could be better spent on mission-critical activities that directly support warfighters. The solution for this domain is automation. While popular in commercial software segments for years—including SalesForce automation, marketing automation, human resources automation, and IT automation—DoD security teams are just beginning to realize the benefits of what’s known as security orchestration, automation, and response. The Value of Security Automation “Automation is nothing new to the military. The Defense Department is making great inroads into DevSecOps, for example,” explained Drew Church, senior security advisor at Splunk, referring to an agile software development process where software is quickly developed, tested, and improved over weeks and months rather than years. “A key, fundamental concept of DevSecOps is automation. The point of automation in DevSecOps is to bring together different technologies, tools, people, and processes to develop code and get it out to the war fighter more rapidly. “Automation provides that same capability inside IT operations procedures, security operations procedures, and other business processes,” said church. “It does this in a reliable and repeatable fashion every time, and at speed and scale.” Splunk’s SOAR solution is called Phantom. It helps security teams work to identify, analyze, and mitigate threats facing their organizations. It can be used to improve efficiency, shorten incident response times and reduce the growing backlog of security incidents, even when there’s a shortfall of DoD security personnel to analyze the volume of daily security alerts. Phantom does so by integrating teams, processes, and tools, and by automating tasks, orchestrating workflows, and supporting a range of SOC functions to include event and case management, collaboration, and reporting. In essence, it frees SOC analysts of the usual Tier I-type activities of gathering data from the security information and event management (SIEM) platform, prioritizing these alerts, performing triage to determine if an alert is real or a false alarm, configuring and managing security monitoring tools, and generating trouble tickets. Instead, Splunk Phantom lets them spend more time on the value-added work of Tier II SOC analysts. This includes actually investigating the trouble tickets, responding to incidents, and leveraging threat intelligence to better understand the threat and be proactive rather than reactive. “Focusing on the bureaucracy of security rather than the actual doing of security limits the effectiveness of security analysts,” said Church. “Better to free them of the tasks that can be easily automated like reviewing IP addresses, domain names, and URLs so that they can be force multipliers in conducting the thoughtful work needed to protect DoD networks. “That automation is done for them in Phantom. It let’s analysts focus on investigating and taking remediation or mitigation steps as appropriate. Where humans excel is in actually thinking through a problem. Copying and pasting from websites, emails, and reports is not the most effective use of a highly paid, resource-limited talent pool.” Integration With Existing SOC Tools SOC analysts make their decisions by gathering information. They sometimes review classified military intelligence, but usually they look at a lot of open-source information and data from commercial off-the-shelf products from myriad providers of cybersecurity threat intelligence products. Some of the common ones that are relevant to the Defense Department include: McAfee’s ePolicy Orchestrator, which the DoD refers to as Host Based Security Systems (HBSS); and Tenable’s Security Center, which is known inside the DoD as Assured Compliance Assessment Solution (ACAS). Splunk Phantom has more than 300 out-of-the-box integrations with products like HBSS and ACAS. “Being integrated with each of those products permits the analyst to get the information they need without having to go to another browser window, or another tab, or a different computer,” said Church. “Phantom automatically brings all that data to the analyst. That takes somebody who spends most of their time copying information from page A into system B and lets them make more rapid and accurate determinations about the threat.” Through the use of APIs (application programming interface), that same integration is also found with government off-the-shelf (GOTs) solutions that haven’t before been integrated with Splunk Phantom because there was never a request to do so. The same goes for a custom app created by a DevSecOps shop like the Air Force’s Kessel Run project in Boston, for example. Automating these vital but drudgerous processes also pays dividends during both staffing shortfalls and times of surge, and brings consistency to SOC activities. Military service members are constantly rotating and changing duty stations; senior leadership turns over regularly. Contractors have to be relied upon to provide continuity from tour to tour. That means that SOC processes that were well oiled on a Monday may no longer be operating smoothly on Friday because of a change of command. Or maybe there is a compelling event that grabs everyone’s attention. Or possibly there are legal or policy requirements that need to be addressed, and though they don’t add mission value they still must be completed. Automation by Splunk Phantom smooths out the bumps associated with those all-to-common scenarios by keeping the flow of vital data moving to where it can be acted upon best. “The computer’s running the marathon for you so that you are free to sprint and swarm on the problems that need the most resources at any particular time,” said Church.  The Takeaway For security analysts, incident handlers/responders, IT operations managers, security operations managers, and forward-leaning business process experts, Splunk Phantom is all about removing barriers so people can get back to accomplishing the mission, maximizing productivity of skilled personnel and organizations. “For anybody that has a business process, a mission process, an IT operations process, or a security process and wants to free those skilled workers to get back to what you brought them onboard to do, we can help you with that,” said Church. “We do that through orchestration, we do that through automation. We bring in collaboration, and we’re able to do that at scale because of the value that a company like Splunk brings to the table. By being able to have a rich ecosystem of partners and support across the board, we’re able to do that even with differences from organization to organization.” Splunk Phantom addresses technology-based processes, and orchestrates and automates those processes to get people back to doing what they do best. https://breakingdefense.com/2020/07/making-dod-security-operations-centers-more-effective-security-automation/

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