5 avril 2018 | International, Aérospatial, Naval, Terrestre, C4ISR, Sécurité

Dépasser la politique des petits pas. Pour une défense européenne vraiment assumée

5 AVR 2018 

(B2) Eurodéfense, une association qui regroupe de nombreuses personnalités militant en faveur d’une autonomie européenne de défense, estime que l’Europe doit changer de braquet, passer à la vitesse supérieure, affirmer réellement une politique de défense européenne, l’assumer et s’attaquer aux questions non résolues depuis des années.

Dans cette tribune, signée par plusieurs officiers supérieurs dont les lecteurs de B2 reconnaitront certainement plusieurs noms, différents principes sont posés dont, en tant qu’observateur, nous pouvons partager plusieurs des constats.

Une Europe de la défense, parent pauvre de la construction européenne

L’époque enthousiaste des pères fondateurs, au lendemain de la Guerre, a posé les bases de l’Union européenne. Si l’Europe économique est devenue une réalité, même imparfaite, l’Europe de la défense a vécu plusieurs échecs. Le traité instituant la Communauté européenne de défense en 1950 n’a jamais été ratifié. L’Union de l’Europe occidentale, de 1954 à 2011, est restée une coquille vide. Ce n’est qu’en 1999, après le sommet franco-britannique de Saint Malo, que furent posées les bases d’une politique de défense au plan européen, avec de premiers fruits en 2003, où deux opérations militaires furent lancées sous la bannière bleue étoilée.

Des résultats positifs mais à l’échelle d’un laboratoire

La politique de sécurité et de défense commune (PSDC), bras armé de la Politique étrangère et de sécurité commune (PESC), était née. Elle a donné des résultats plus que positifs, malheureusement insuffisamment connus. En 15 ans, près de 80 000 hommes ont été engagés avec succès dans les opérations de l’Union européenne. Nous avons ainsi célébré le 30 mars les 15 ans de la PSDC opérationnelle, avec l’anniversaire du lancement de la première opération, Concordia, dans l’Ancienne République yougoslave de Macédoine (FYROM). Toutefois, à l’échelle européenne et au regard des besoins, c’est peu. Nous restons à un degré d’engagement de portée limitée, que l’on peut qualifier de « niveau de laboratoire ». De plus, les actions du haut du spectre, envisagées parmi les types de missions élaborées à Petersberg en 1992, n’ont été que très rarement menées. Ces missions, dont l’objectif est le rétablissement de la paix, comportent des modes d’action robustes, incluant l’usage de la force. Continuer ainsi ne suffira pas. Pire, le modèle s’épuisera.

Un monde plus dangereux… ou juste différent

Les besoins ont évolué, face à un monde plus dangereux. Il devient difficile de dissocier action extérieure et sécurité intérieure dans la lutte anti-terroriste. Une défense européenne digne de ce nom se doit de garantir la sécurité de ses citoyens où qu’ils se trouvent, de protéger ses infrastructures et de défendre ses intérêts partout dans le monde. Elle doit pouvoir s’appuyer sur une « base industrielle et technologique de défense européenne » (BITDE) qui soit apte à garantir l’autonomie stratégique européenne, en particulier l’emploi des matériels sans contrainte venant de l’extérieur de l’Europe. Cette BITDE est hélas insuffisante aujourd’hui, en raison notamment du périmètre réduit de la PSDC, maints domaines capacitaires n’étant pas couverts par celle-ci. Il y a là une véritable incohérence.

La complémentarité nécessaire même pour les petits pays

Peu d’États ont la capacité de répondre seuls à l’ensemble des besoins de défense. La complémentarité au niveau européen s’impose. Même la France, qui, en théorie, dispose des moyens d’assurer son autonomie stratégique, fait régulièrement appel à des soutiens extérieurs pour combler ses lacunes, principalement dans les domaines du renseignement et du transport stratégique.

Les limites de la politique des petits pas

La politique des petits pas a montré ses limites, malgré les récentes avancées concrètes que sont le fonds européen de défense, le processus annuel de revue coordonnée des plans nationaux de défense et la coopération structurée permanente. Il faut élever le niveau d’ambition inutilement censuré lors de la création de la PSDC et passer la vitesse supérieure. Une approche globale et collective de la sécurité de l’Europe par les pays européens est désormais indispensable, une approche qui englobe les aspects intérieurs et extérieurs, et qui soit partagée si possible par l’ensemble des États membres de l’UE et à défaut par le plus grand nombre.

Revoir la complémentarité OTAN-UE

Cela implique notamment une réflexion sur la complémentarité entre l’OTAN et l’UE. L’actuelle répartition des rôles entre une OTAN garante de la sécurité collective et une PSDC tournée exclusivement vers l’action extérieure n’est à l’évidence plus pertinente : elle ne permet pas aux Européens d’exercer collectivement leurs responsabilités de défense, en dépit des dispositions volontaristes prises récemment par ceux-ci pour resserrer leur coopération. Même la mesure phare de la complémentarité entre les deux organisations, l’accord dit de Berlin Plus, signé en 2003, qui donnait à l’Union un accès aux moyens de commandement de l’OTAN, n’est plus opérante en raison notamment du différent turco-chypriote.

Assumer une défense européenne

Il est temps de s’engager dans une défense européenne vraiment assumée. La simple relecture des documents européens – le traité de Lisbonne de 2007, la Stratégie européenne de sécurité intérieure 2015-2020, la Stratégie globale pour la politique étrangère et de sécurité de l’UE de 2016 – fournit suffisamment d’éléments pour faire émerger une telle défense. La capacité d’agir sur l’ensemble du spectre des opérations, de l’assistance humanitaire à l’engagement de haute intensité, comprend, avec les opérations de projection, des opérations de solidarité et d’assistance mutuelle sur le théâtre européen. Ces dernières qui font partie de la défense collective, sont menées en cohérence avec les engagements pris au sein de l’Alliance Atlantique par les États qui en sont membres. Par ailleurs, les textes autorisent un niveau de flexibilité original : l’article 44 du traité de Lisbonne donne aux instances européennes la possibilité de déléguer la conduite d’une opération à un groupe d’États membres. Et la Coopération structurée permanente, récemment décidée, est le support adapté pour le développement de capacités nouvelles.

Rééquilibrer le pacte atlantique

C’est une politique de défense européenne complète, affirmée, active et opérationnelle qui peut alors se mettre en place. Grâce à des Européens stratégiquement plus autonomes, elle devrait avoir pour première conséquence une évolution du lien transatlantique qui, tenant compte de l’histoire et de nos valeurs communes, devra être rénové. Rééquilibré et assumé, le nouveau pacte atlantique devra permettre à l’Europe de devenir un partenaire fiable, crédible et écouté. Restent à définir les voies permettant cette évolution.

Revoir les processus de décision nationale et le financement en commun

Il faudra pour cela affronter les sujets de discordance ou de blocage entre Européens, plutôt que de les passer sous silence, de peur de détruire un hypothétique équilibre obtenu à force de concessions. Les règles d’engagement et les spécificités juridiques, notamment pour l’usage de la force, seront à harmoniser. Les processus décisionnels nationaux nécessiteront dans certains cas la définition de boucles courtes, permettant la réaction dans l’urgence, comme dans les catastrophes humanitaires. Il faudra travailler sur les contributions budgétaires des États pour les opérations, les rendre plus équitables et renforcer l’importance du fonds européen de défense.

Avoir une politique claire vis-à-vis des citoyens

Les principes suivants inspireraient la démarche. D’abord, les citoyens européens doivent recevoir des réponses simples et compréhensibles à leurs besoins de sécurité et de défense. Aujourd’hui, si, selon l’Eurobaromètre de l’automne 2017, les trois quarts d’entre eux continuent à plébisciter l’Europe de la Défense, ils n’ont pas une idée claire de sa réalisation, tant les discours sur les rôles partagés entre l’Alliance Atlantique, la PSDC et la défense nationale sont complexes et indigestes. Quand nos dirigeants se seront engagés résolument pour une défense européenne souveraine, ils pourront apporter de telles réponses.

Tenir compte des différences et de la souveraineté des États

Le principe de la subsidiarité et de la complémentarité avec les États doit être préservé. La subsidiarité est incontournable, le domaine de la défense restant de la responsabilité des États et la souveraineté européenne ne pouvant s’exercer que grâce aux contributions de ceux-ci en troupes aguerries et en équipements. Si les menaces et les risques sont perçus avec un degré d’intensité différent selon les États, ils doivent conduire à la complémentarité des actions, basée sur les savoir-faire spécifiques de chacun. Par exemple, certains pays ont une culture de projection développée, comme la France ou l’Espagne, autorisant notamment l’intervention en Afrique. D’autres, comme l’Allemagne ou la Pologne, sont plus tournés vers la défense collective. Cela n’empêche pas chacun d’entre eux de participer aux missions, mais avec des degrés d’engagement différents. Les clauses de solidarité et d’assistance mutuelle entre les États, notamment en cas d’attaque terroriste, telles qu’elles sont décrites dans le traité de Lisbonne, ne doivent pas rester lettre morte ; elles doivent être assumées.

Avoir réellement une autonomie stratégique

C’est à ce titre que cette défense gagnera en souveraineté. Les initiatives lancées par le Président de la République dans son discours de la Sorbonne de septembre 2017, comme le développement d’une capacité d’action autonome, autoriseront la continuité entre les États et l’Europe, comme celle entre missions extérieures et intérieures. L’autonomie stratégique d’une défense aux contours élargis pourra alors être soutenue dans le même périmètre par une BITDE ayant des capacités de recherche et développement complètes et autonomes. Il s’agira de gagner alors la bataille des normes industrielles. Dernier principe, cette Europe de la défense souveraine devra multiplier les partenariats, notamment avec ses voisins immédiats. Elle renouvellera le lien transatlantique, rééquilibré grâce à un meilleur partage du fardeau.

Un livre blanc européen nécessaire

Pour tout cela, un Livre blanc, dont EuroDéfense-France est un ferme partisan, s’avère nécessaire, avec l’établissement d’une feuille de route ambitieuse. Ainsi, pourra être construite la défense d’une « Europe souveraine, unie, démocratique » pour reprendre les termes du Président de la République.

Les membres du bureau de l’association EuroDéfense-France : Patrick Bellouard (président d’EuroDéfense-France, IGA 2S), Maurice de Langlois (général 2S, ancien directeur de recherche IRSEM), Jean-Didier Blanchet (ancien DG d’Air France), Jean-Charles Boulat (directeur des affaires UE et OTAN du groupe industriel Naval Group), François Bresson (général 2S, ancien directeur de l’Institut des hautes études de défense nationale-IHEDN), Patrick de Rousiers (général d’armée aérienne 2S, ancien président du comité militaire de l’Union européenne), Michel Desmoulin (président d’honneur de l’Union des associations d’auditeurs de l’IHEDN), Jacques Favin-Lévêque (général 2S, ancien délégué général du Groupement des industries de défense et de sécurité terrestres et aéroterrestres), Patrick Hébrard (vice-amiral d’escadre 2S), Jean-Loup Kuhn-Delforge (ancien ambassadeur), François Laumonier (ancien ambassadeur), Jean-Paul Palomeros (général d’armée aérienne 2S, ancien chef d’état-major de l’armée de l’air, ancien commandant allié transformation de l’OTAN), Jean-Paul Perruche (général 2S, ancien directeur général de l’état-major de l’Union européenne), Claude Roche (ancien directeur de la stratégie défense d’EADS, Vice-président de l’Académie de l’air et de l’espace), Philippe Roger (IGA 2S), Cyrille Schott (ancien directeur de l’Institut national des hautes études de la sécurité et de la justice) et Denis Verret (président, DV Conseil).

Les propos ci-dessus n’engagent que leurs auteurs. Les intertitres sont de la rédaction. Cette opinion a été publiée également dans le quotidien français La tribune

https://www.bruxelles2.eu/2018/04/05/depasser-la-politique-des-petits-pas-pour-une-defense-europeenne-vraiment-assumee/

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  • When does industry expect France and Germany to set its future tank requirements?

    15 juin 2018 | International, Terrestre

    When does industry expect France and Germany to set its future tank requirements?

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    Why Federal A&D Spending Is The Modern Interstate Highway System

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    9 décembre 2019 | International, Aérospatial, Naval, Terrestre, C4ISR, Sécurité

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ARMY Riptide Software,* Oviedo, Florida, was awarded a $43,000,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for target modernization and Targetry Range Automated Control and Recording system.  Bids were solicited via the internet with two received.  Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 2, 2027.  U.S. Army Contracting Command, Orlando, Florida, is the contracting activity (W900KK-20-D-0004). General Dynamics Land Systems, Sterling Heights, Michigan, was awarded a $12,456,918 cost-plus-fixed-fee foreign military sales (Kuwait) contract for contractor logistics services, maintenance training and technical assistance.  One bid was solicited via the internet with one bid received.  Work will be performed in Kuwait City, Kuwait, with an estimated completion date of Dec. 5, 2023.  Fiscal 2018 Foreign Military Sales funds in the amount of $12,456,918 were obligated at the time of the award.  U.S. Army Contracting Command, Warren, Michigan, is the contracting activity (W56HZV-20-C-0031). Smiths Detection, Edgewood, Maryland, was awarded an $11,734,549 modification (P00013) to contract W911SR-18-C-0033 for aerosol vapor chemical agent detector systems.  Work will be performed in Edgewood, Maryland, with an estimated completion date of May 29, 2020.  Fiscal 2020 research, development, test and evaluation funds in the amount of $2,861,673 were obligated at the time of the award.  U.S. Army Contracting Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is the contracting activity. AIR FORCE L3 Technologies Inc., Communication Systems, West, Salt Lake City, Utah, has been awarded a $17,933,366 contract for the Defense Experimentation Using Commercial Space Internet (DEUCSI) Call 002 Vendor Flexibility effort.  This contract seeks to establish the ability to communicate with Air Force platforms via multiple commercial space internet constellations using common user terminal hardware elements.  Work will be performed at Salt Lake City, Utah, and is expected to be complete by Aug. 31, 2022.  This award is the result of a competitive acquisition under the DEUCSI Advanced Research Announcement Call 002.  Fiscal 2019 and 2020 research, development, test and evaluation funds in the amount of $4,130,000 are being obligated at the time of award.  The Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the contracting activity (FA8650-20-C-9313). BlueForce Inc., Hampton, Virginia, has been awarded a $15,683,635 firm-fixed-price, Option 1 modification (P00003) to previously-awarded contract FA3002-19-F-A045 for continued support for the Royal Saudi Air Force English language training outside the continental U.S. program.  Work will be performed at King Abdul Aziz Air Base, Saudi Arabia, and is expected to be completed by Jan. 3, 2024.  This contract involves 100% foreign military sales to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  The total cumulative face value of the contract is $28,009,060.  Foreign Military Sales funds in the amount of $15,683,635 are being obligated at the time of award.  The 338th Specialized Contracting Squadron, Joint Base San Antonio, Randolph, Texas, is the contracting activity. Northrop Grumman Space & Mission Systems Corp., San Jose, California, has been awarded a $13,000,000 indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity for Airborne Signals Intelligence Payload (ASIP) efforts.  This contract provides for solutions for diminishing manufacturing sources and material shortages, systems integration lab and cybersecurity support, upgrades to meet routine requirements identified via Air Force IMT 1067 modification proposals and engineering change proposals that are logical follow-ons to maintain and upgrade the ASIP sensor.  Work will be performed at Sacramento, California, and is expected to be completed by Dec. 31, 2020.  This award is the result of a sole source acquisition.  No funding is being obligated at the time of the award.  The Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the contracting activity (FA8620-20-D-3025). BAE Systems Technology Solutions & Services Inc., Rockville, Maryland, has been awarded a $12,608,102 firm-fixed-price, indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract modification (P00003) to previously-awarded contract FA8109-18-D-0005 to exercise Option Two.  The contract modification extends the contract term for an additional 12 months in order to continue providing diminishing manufacturing sources and material shortages support for Air Force and non-Air Force users supporting the Air Force, to proactively reduce mission capability impacts to improve logistics support and weapon system sustainability.  This effort will help assure all required parts and materials supporting Air Force-managed weapon systems are available within acceptable production lead times and will reduce the overall cost of ownership of the weapon systems by facilitating economical diminishing manufacturing sources and material shortages resolutions costs, reducing the number of reactive solutions, minimizing any delays in organic depot-level repair, as well as contractor repair and by improving weapon system availability.  Work will be performed at Hill Air Force Base, Utah; Robins Air Force Base, Georgia; Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma; and Fort Walton Beach, Florida; and is expected to be completed by June 20, 2021.  The total cumulative face value of the contract is $37,386,305.  Fiscal 2020 and 2021 consolidated sustainment activity group engineering funds will be obligated on any individual task orders issued during the option two performance period.  The Air Force Sustainment Center, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, is the contracting activity. Northrop Grumman Systems Corp., Herndon, Virginia, has been awarded a $9,947,673 contract for the Defense Experimentation Using Commercial Space Internet (DEUCSI) Call 002 Vendor Flexibility effort.  This contract seeks to establish the ability to communicate with Air Force platforms via multiple commercial space internet constellations using common user terminal hardware elements.  Work will be performed at San Diego, California, and is expected to be completed by November 2021.  This award is the result of a competitive acquisition under the DEUCSI Advanced Research Announcement Call 002.  Fiscal 2019 and 2020 research, development, test and evaluation funds in the amount of $3,633,549 are being obligated at the time of award.  The Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the contracting activity (FA8650-20-C-9315). *Small Business https://www.defense.gov/Newsroom/Contracts/Contract/Article/2034460/source/GovDelivery/

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